Our body weight is affected by the quantity and quality of the food we receive. Establishment of overweight and obesity is related by 95 % to an imbalance between energy intake and outtake. It is simple; if we eat more than our energy output is (metabolism when calm + energy output when moving), our body saves this energy excess as under-skin and inner fat. If our energy intake and energy output is in balance, we keep the same body weight. With reduced food intake, when energy output is higher, we reduce our body weight. It gradually breaks down water, fat tissue and muscle mass. If we want to reduce our weight healthily and positively affect the ratio between active muscle mass and fat tissue, it is necessary to maintain appropriate balance between intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats. The weight reduction should be complemented with exercise and movement, which activates muscles and improves the ratio between the content of fat and muscle tissue.
Proteins are necessary for recovery and building of tissues. Daily intake should content 10- 20% of proteins. In practice, this means that due to your optimum weight (height in cm - 100), you should intake at least 0.6 grams of proteins per each kilogram of body weight a day. To increase muscle mass proportion, it is recommended to intake 1- 1.5 grams of proteins per 1 kg of body weight. The issue of sufficient protein intake is connected with content of essential – basic amino acids. The human body is able to create its own proteins of these. Vegetable protein never contains all the essential amino acids. If we receive plant foods, we have to combine different types of vegetable proteins. Animal protein contains all the essential amino acids. However, meat products often contain a large percentage of fat. The energy value of one gram of protein is approximately 17 KJ.
Carbohydrates are used primarily to cover the energy intake and should be approximately 55- 60% of the daily food intake. Body uses the simple sugars as a quick source of energy. Body breaks down complex carbohydrates slower and so these products gradually provide the body with energy. Therefore we talk about food with high and low glycemic index. Food with low glycemic index and high content of soluble and insoluble fiber should be mainly represented in our nourishment. A significant amount of overweight and obese people has also increased value of blood sugar and often suffer from constipation. The energy value of 1 gram of carbohydrates is approximately 17 KJ.
Fats are the richest source of energy for the human body. The energy value of fat is approximately 38 KJ. They provide the body with fatty acids and are needed for absorption of some fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). These also contain cholesterol that the body desperately needs, but in small amounts. The problem of overweight is related to excessive intake of food with high content on fat. We consume obvious fats (butter, lard, edible fat) and foods with high content of hidden fat (cakes, waffles, biscuits and others).
In the total of consumed fats, should be less fat with high content of saturated fatty acids (such as olive oil, nuts). Big intake of fats in combination with inappropriate ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is linked to occurrence of increased level cholesterol and blood fats (triglycerides) in middle and elderly age. These are followed by development of metabolic syndrome X (Reaven’s syndrome). Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism – diabetes of the 2nd type establishment and disorder of fat metabolism (increased total cholesterol and abnormal ratio between LDL and HDL cholesterol) are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and a number of other complications.
To people with simple overweight and obesity is required a combination of exercise and reduction diet, when energy output exceeds energy income. Special diet is required to people with presence of metabolic syndrome. Details of excessive weight reduction program and diet for people with metabolic syndrome need a consultation with dietitian.
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